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Comparison of keyboard shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are a common aspect of most modern operating systems and associated software applications. Their use is pervasive enough that some users consider them an essential element of their routine interactions with a computer. Whether used as a matter of personal preference or for adaptive technology, the pervasiveness of common conventions enables the comparison of keyboard shortcuts across different systems. The following sections detail some of these comparisons in widely used operating systems.

General shortcuts

A note regarding KDE‘s shortcuts is that they can be changed and the below list contains the defaults. Some of the combinations are not true for localized versions of operating systems. For example in a non-English version of Windows, the Edit menu is not always bound to the “E” shortcut.

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs
File menu Alt+F, or F10then F Ctrl+F2, then F (requires full keyboard access active, using System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls. Alternatively useCtrl+F1 to toggle this setting.) Alt+F Meta+`, then f
Edit menu Alt+E Ctrl+F2, then E Alt+E Meta+`, then e
View menu Alt+V Ctrl+F2, then V Alt+V
Undo the last operation Ctrl+Z, orAlt+← Backspace  Cmd+Z Ctrl+Z Ctrl+x, then u

or Ctrl+/
or Ctrl+_
or Undo

Redo the last operation Ctrl+Y  Shift+ Cmd+Z  Shift+Ctrl+Z, or Ctrl+Y Same as undo, when undo is exhausted, it redoes. Move the cursor after one or more undos, and further undos will be redos.
Cut the selected area and store it in theclipboard Ctrl+X, or Shift+Del  Cmd+X Ctrl+X Ctrl+w
Copy the selected area into theclipboard Ctrl+C, orCtrl+Ins  Cmd+C Ctrl+C Meta+w, or Ctrl+Ins
Paste contents ofclipboard at cursor Ctrl+V, or Shift+Ins  Cmd+V Ctrl+V Ctrl+y, or  Shift+Ins, or
Paste special Ctrl+Alt+V Ctrl+ Shift+V Meta+y
Select all in focused control or window Ctrl+A  Cmd+A Ctrl+A Ctrl+x, then h
Toggle among installed keyboard languages  Shift+Alt  Cmd+Space (not MBR)

Configure desired keypress in Keyboard and Mouse PreferencesKeyboard Shortcuts,Select the next source in Input menu.[1]

Ctrl+Alt+K via KDE Keyboard

 Shift+Alt in GNOME



Action Windows Mac OS KDE/GNOME
New browser window with same page as current Ctrl+N (for both explorer.exe and iexplore.exe) Ctrl+N
New folder Ctrl+ Shift+N  Shift+ Cmd+N Ctrl+ Shift+N
Applications menu  Win or
Alt + "n"

e.g. for _File_ Alt + F

Lock desktop  Win+L[2] Ctrl+ Shift+Eject or MBR Ctrl+ Shift+Pwr

(If “Require password after sleep or screen saver” is enabled in “System Preferences — Security & Privacy”)

Show desktop  Win+D or
 Win+M (then use  Win+ Shift+M to bring back all windows)
F11 Ctrl+Alt+D
Log out user  Shift+ Cmd+Q Ctrl+Alt+Delete
Switch active user  Win+L[3]
Task manager Ctrl+ Shift+EscCtrl+Alt+Delete[4] Alt+ Cmd+Esc Ctrl+Esc
Rename object F2  Enter F2
Open file or program  Enter  Cmd+O  Enter
Switch window (next/previous) Alt+Tab  /


 Cmd+Tab  /

 Shift+ Cmd+Tab 

Alt+Tab  /

Alt+ Shift+Tab 

Switch window without dialog (next/previous) Alt+Esc /


Only works within single Applications

 Cmd+` /  Cmd+~

Run application  Win, enter executable name or

 Win+R, enter executable name

 Cmd+Space, enter executable name Alt+F2, enter executable name
Search  Win, enter executable name or
 Cmd+Space /


Power management

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Place computer into sleep/standby mode Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel–>Power Options–>Advanced tab dialog box)  Opt+ Cmd+Eject[5] Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel–>Power Options–>Advanced tab dialog box)
Shutdown computer Ctrl+ Opt+ Cmd+Eject

(no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageDown

(KDE; no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Restart computer Ctrl+ Cmd+Eject[5]

(no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageUp

(KDE; no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Place display in sleep mode Ctrl+ Shift+Eject
Bring up power/sleep dialog box Alt+F4 (while on Desktop only) Ctrl+Eject


Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Save screenshot of entire screen as file Windows+Print Screen  Shift+ Cmd+3 Print Screen set the name and click “Save”. GNOME Shell [6]
Copy screenshot of entire screen to clipboard Print Screen or Ctrl+Print Screen Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+3 Print Screen click “Copy to Clipboard”. GNOME Shell [6]
Save screenshot of window as file  Shift+ Cmd+4 then Space Alt+Print Screen set the name and click “Save”. GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of window to clipboard Alt+Print Screen Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4 then Space Alt+Print Screen click “Copy to Clipboard”. GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of arbitrary area to clipboard Ctrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4
Save screenshot of arbitrary area as file  Shift+ Cmd+4
Screencasting Ctrl+ Shift+Alt+R

[7] [8]

Text editing

Many of these commands may be combined with  Shift to select a region of text.[9]

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacs Vim
Delete char to the right of cursor Del or Fn+← Backspace Del, or Ctrl+d, orFn+← Backspace Ctrl+d x
Delete word to the right of cursor Ctrl+Del  Opt+Del or
 OptFn+← Backspace
Ctrl+Del Meta+d dw
Delete word to the left of cursor Ctrl+← Backspace  Opt+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace, orMeta+← Backspace db
Go to start of line Home, or Fn+  Cmd+ or Ctrl+A Home Ctrl+a, or Home 0
Go to end of line End, or Fn+  Cmd+ or Ctrl+E End Ctrl+e, or End $
Go to start of document Ctrl + Home  Cmd+ Ctrl + Home Meta+<, or Ctrl+Home gg
Go to end of document Ctrl + End  Cmd+ Ctrl + End Meta+>, or Ctrl+End G
Go to previous word Ctrl+  Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+b, or Ctrl+, orMeta+ b
Go to next word Ctrl+  Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+f, or Ctrl+, orMeta+ w
Go to previous line , or Ctrl+p Ctrl+p, or  k
Go to next line , or Ctrl+n Ctrl+n, or  j
Go to previous line break (paragraph) Ctrl+  Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME) Meta+'{', or Control+ {
Go to next line break Ctrl+  Opt+ Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME) Meta+'}', or Control+ }
Move the cursor down the length of the viewport Page Down Fn+ Page Down
Move the cursor up the length of the viewport Page Up Fn+ Page Up
Find Ctrl+F  Cmd+F

 Cmd+E (Search with current selection)


Ctrl+K (GNOME; interactive search)

Ctrl+s /
Go to next search result F3  Cmd+G Ctrl+G (GNOME) or F3 (KDE)[10] Ctrl+s n
Go to previous search result  Shift+F3  Shift+ Cmd+G  Shift+Ctrl+G (GNOME) or Shift+F3 (KDE)[10] Ctrl+r N
Search and replace Ctrl+H  Cmd+F Ctrl+H (GNOME) or Ctrl+R (KDE) Meta+% %s/fosh/fish/gc
Search with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+s All search uses regular expressions.
Search and replace with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+%,

Text formatting

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME[11] Emacs Vim
Bold Ctrl+B  Cmd+B Ctrl+B
Underline Ctrl+U  Cmd+U Ctrl+U
Italic Ctrl+I  Cmd+I Ctrl+I
Uppercase / Lowercase  Shift+F3  Opt+ Cmd+C  Shift+F3 Meta+u for upper,

Meta+l for lower, Meta+c for capitalized.

gU for upper, gu for lower.
Superscript Ctrl+ Shift++ Ctrl+ Cmd++ (Pages and Adobe Applications only?) Ctrl+ Shift+P[12]
Subscript Ctrl+= Ctrl+ Cmd+- (Pages and Adobe Applications only?) Ctrl+ Shift+B[12]
Make selected text larger/smaller Ctrl+ Shift+>/Ctrl+ Shift+<,


Browsers / Go menu

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME
Go to Address Bar Alt+D or Alt+C
depending on language
 Cmd+L Ctrl+L
Go to the previous location in history Alt+ or ← Backspace  Cmd+[ or  Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the next location in history Alt+ or  Shift+← Backspace (web browser only)  Cmd+] or  Cmd+ Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchy Alt+ (Vista, 7 or 8 only) or ← Backspace (Windows Explorer)  Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or application Alt+Home  Cmd+Home Ctrl+Home (KDE) /

Alt+Home (GNOME)

Web browsers

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacsw3m
Bookmarks menu Ctrl+B  Cmd+B (Firefox) Alt+B v
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com) Ctrl+ Enter  Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) or

Control+ Enter (Chrome)

Ctrl+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org) Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter  Shift+ Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net)  Shift + Enter  Shift + Enter (Firefox)  Shift + Enter
Add bookmark for current page Ctrl+D  Cmd+D Ctrl+B /


Add bookmark for current link Meta+a
Manage bookmarks Ctrl+B  Cmd+ Opt+B (Chrome/Safari) or

 Cmd+ Shift+B (Firefox)

Ctrl+ Shift+R /


Focus and select Web search bar Ctrl+E  Cmd+E (Opera) or

 Cmd+K (Firefox) or
 Opt+ Cmd+F (Safari)

Focus and select address bar Ctrl+L or F6 or Alt+D  Cmd+L Ctrl+L or Alt+D or F6 g s
Refresh a webpage F5 or Ctrl+R  Cmd+R F5 or Ctrl+R R
Open a new window Ctrl+N  Cmd+N (Chrome) Ctrl+N
Zoom Options (zoom in / zoom out / zoom 100%) Ctrl++ / Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0  Cmd++ /  Cmd+- /  Cmd+0 Ctrl++ / Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0

Tab management

Action Windows Mac OS KDE / GNOME Emacsw3m
New tab Ctrl+T  Cmd+T Ctrl+ Shift+N or Ctrl+ Shift+T or Ctrl+T Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+t
Close tab Ctrl+W  Cmd+W Ctrl+W Mozilla Firefox [13] & Opera [14] & Chrom{e,ium} [15] & Arora [16] &Epiphany [17] & Midori

Ctrl+F4 Mozilla Firefox [13] & Opera [14] & Chrom{e,ium} [15] & Arora [16]

Close all tabs but the current one  Cmd+ Opt+W (Safari) Ctrl+c, thenMeta+w
Go to next tab Ctrl+Tab  Control+Tab  or  Cmd+ Shift+(Safari) Ctrl+PageDown or Ctrl+Tab  or Ctrl+. Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+n
Go to previous tab Ctrl+ Shift+Tab   Shift+Control+Tab  or Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari) Ctrl+PageUp or Ctrl+ Shift+Tab  or Ctrl+, Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+p
Go to tab-n Ctrl+n(Chrome/Firefox)  Cmd+n (Chrome) Alt+n (Chrome/Firefox) or

Ctrl+n ‘(Chrome)

Open a previously closed tab Ctrl+ Shift+T  Cmd+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome) Ctrl+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome)[15][18][19] Ctrl+ Shift+T(Firefox)[18]
Open a previously closed window Ctrl+ Shift+N(Firefox)

Window management

Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME Emacs
Pop up window menu Alt+Space Alt+F3 Alt+Space Ctrl+`, then b
Close the focused window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 or Ctrl+W orAlt+Space then C[20]  Cmd+W Alt+F4 Alt+F4 Ctrl+x, then k
Restore the focused window to its previous size Alt+Space then R[20] Alt+F5 Ctrl+x, then r, then j, then letter of the window state register.
Move the focused window Alt+Space then M[20] then Arrow Keys and Enter(to save location) Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F3 then Mthen Arrow Keys

Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F7 then Arrow Keys

Resize the focused window Alt+Space then S[20] then Arrow Keys Alt+F3 then Sthen Arrow Keys Alt+F8 then Arrow Keys Ctrl+x, then ^ vertically
Hide the focused window  Cmd+H Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Hide all except the focused window  Cmd+ Option+H
Minimize the focused window Alt+Space then N,[20] or  Win+(Windows 7 and Vista Home Premium)  Cmd+M Alt+F3 then N Alt+F9 Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Maximize the focused window Alt+Space then X,[20] or  Win+(Windows 7 only)  Cmd+L Alt+F3 then X Alt+F10 Ctrl+x, then 1
Maximize horizontally Available, but no default Available, but no default
Maximize vertically  Win+ Shift+ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Available, but no default Available, but no default
Minimize all  Win+M or  Win+D  Cmd+Alt+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Minimize all non focused windows  Win+Home (Windows 7 only) Available, but no default
Undo minimize all  Shift+ Win+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal size F11  Cmd+ Shift+F F11 F11
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbar Depends on application, system default:  Cmd+CTRL+F Ctrl+ Shift+F Ctrl+F11
Rollup/down window Available, but no default Alt+F12
Show all open windows  Win+Tab  F9 or

Move mouse pointer to configuredhot corner or active screen corner[21][22]

 Win works per desktop on Gnome 3+ Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all windows of current application F3 or

Move mouse pointer to configuredhot corner or active screen corner[21][22]

Ctrl+` Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all workspaces F8 or

Move mouse pointer to configuredhot corner or active screen corner[21][22]

 Win then mouse over the desktop bar on the right edge of the screen
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace  Win+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+

 /  /  / 

Move window between multiple monitors  Win+ Shift+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8)
Move window to workspace n Available, but no default
Switch to next/previous workspace list Available, but no default
Go to workspace n Ctrl+n Ctrl+Fn
Go to left/right/up/down workspace [23] Ctrl+ /

Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.5 to 10.6), Ctrl+ /Ctrl+ (OS X 10.7)

Ctrl+Alt+ /

 /  / 

Quit application of current window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies[24]  Cmd+Q[25] Ctrl+Alt+Esc q
Close dialog Esc Esc
Open/Focus (preview) pinned program on the taskbar  Win+(#) where “#” is the position of the program on the Windows 7 Taskbar (Windows 7 only)
Open new program window of pinned program in Quick Launch  Win+(#) where “#” is the position of the program on the Quick Launch toolbar (Windows Vista and 7)
Open new program window of the pinned program on the taskbar (if program is already opened)  Win+ Shift+(#) where “#” is the position of the program on the Windows 7 Taskbar (Windows 7 only)
Focus the first taskbar entry. Pressing again will cycle through them  Win+T, you can  back and forth. Hold  Shift to cycle backwards (Windows 7 only)
Peek at the desktop  Win+Space (Windows 7 only) F11 or

Move mouse pointer to configuredhot corner or active screen corner[21][22]

Bring gadgets to the front of the Z-order and cycle between gadgets  Win+G (Windows Vista,7) or Win+Space (Vista only, no cycling)
External display options (mirror, extend desktop, etc.)  Win+P (Windows 7 and Windows 8)

User interface navigation (widgets and controls)

Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous control Tab  / Shift+Tab  With full keyboard access active (System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls)

Tab  /  Shift+Tab 

Tab  / Shift+Tab  Tab  /  Shift+Tab 

Ctrl+Tab  / Shift+Ctrl+Tab 

Pop up tooltip for currently focused control  Shift+F1 Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control  Shift+F1  Cmd+?  Shift+F1  Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous pane Ctrl+F6 /Alt+F6  Cmd+` F6 /  Shift+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned window F8
Give focus to window’s menu bar F10 or Alt  Cmd+ Shift+/, then type command name, or
Ctrl+F2 (or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards – requires full keyboard access active using System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls))
Alt F10
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects (aka context menu)  Shift+F10 or Menu Varies with laptop / extended keyboard type; enable Mouse keys in Universal Access, thenFunction+Ctrl+5 or Ctrl+5 (numeric keypad) or Function+Ctrl+i (laptop)  Menu  Menu or  Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle button Space Space Space Space
Activate focused button, menu item etc.  Enter Space (also  Enter for menu items)  Enter  Enter
Select/move to first/last item in selected widget Home / End Home / End
Scroll selected view by one page up/left/down/right  / 

(or Fn+}+Fn+ on some keyboards)

PageUp / Ctrl+PageUp /
PageDown /Ctrl+PageDown
Scroll selected view to top/bottom  or on MacBook Pro Fn +  Opt + 

 or on MacBook Pro Fn +  Opt + 

Switch focus to the next/previous tab within a window Ctrl+Tab  Ctrl+Tab  /


Ctrl+Tab  ->

Ctrl+ Shift+Tab  <-

Switch focus to the next/previous panel on the desktop Ctrl+Alt+Tab  / Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Tab 
Switch focus to the next/previous panel (without dialog) Ctrl+Alt+Esc /


Command line shortcuts

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used in a command line environment.

Action Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
(Windows PowerShell)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(POSIX shell)
Scroll through History of typed commands / / / or Ctrl+P/Ctrl+N ESC K/ESC J
Signal end-of-file Ctrl+Z Ctrl+D
Abort current command/typing Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C Ctrl+C
Erase word to the left Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+W
Erase word to the right Ctrl+Delete Alt+D
Erase line to the left Ctrl+Home Ctrl+U
Erase line to the right Ctrl+End Ctrl+End Ctrl+K
Yank/paste previously erased string Ctrl+Y
Move one word to the left (backward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+B
Move one word to the right (forward) Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Alt+F
Move to beginning of line Home Home Ctrl+A

or Home

Move to end of line End End Ctrl+E

or End

Reverse search of history F8 F8 Ctrl+R
Stop execution of the current job Ctrl+Z
Insert the next character typed verbatim Ctrl+V
Autocomplete command/file name Tab  (enabled by default in Windows XP and later) Tab  Tab  (usually once) Esc (usually twice)
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor  Shift+Ins
Scroll window up  Shift+PageUp (may not work in some versions of Windows XP)  Shift+PageUp
Scroll window down  Shift+PageDown (may not work in some versions of Windows XP)  Shift+PageDown


In Windows, it is possible to disable these shortcuts using the Accessibility or Ease of Access control panel.

  • In GNOME, these shortcuts are possible if Universal Access is enabled.
Action Windows Mac OS KDE GNOME
Utility Manager  Win+U
Use keyboard to control cursor (Left Alt+Left Shift+Numlock [26]
Allow user to press shortcuts one key at a time ( Shift 5 times) ***( Shift 5 times) [27]
Hear beep when -lock key pressed (Numlock for 5 seconds)
Stop/slow repeating characters when key is pressed (Right Shift for 8 seconds) ***( Shift for 8 seconds)[28]


Inverse (Reverse Colors) Mode Left Alt+Left Shift+PrtScn  Cmd+ Opt+Ctrl+8